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2190 Sapper
Royal Engineers

Lieutenant Colonel Edward De Santis, 2000


James Mc Intosh was born in the Parish of Alves, in the Town of Elgin, in the County of Elgin, Scotland in May of 1876. Elgin, located in the former Scottish county of Elginshire [2], is located in northeast Scotland near the coast of Spey Bay, approximately 58 miles northwest of Aberdeen.

The 1881 British Census shows William and Jane Mc Intosh living at "Gateside", Alves, Elgin, Scotland [3]. The census indicates that besides James, who was 5 years old at the time, William and Jane Mc Intosh also had a daughter Jane (born 1878), a daughter Sophia R. (born 1879) and a 5-month old infant daughter named Isabella. A 14-year old boy by the name of Duncan Pirie was also living with the family at the time of the census [4].

At some point while James was in the Army, his parents moved to Hopeman, Elgin, a small town located on the coast between Burghead Bay and Spey Bay, approximately six miles northwest of Elgin. The Mc Intosh family later moved to Glenlea Cottage on Gorgia Road in Edinburgh while James was still serving in the Army.

James worked as a gasfitter as a young man, but he never served an Apprenticeship in the trade. He lived with his parents prior to joining the Army, was unmarried, and worshipped in the Presbyterian faith. 


The following is a description of James Mc Intosh at the time he enlisted in the Army in 1898:

Apparent Age:

22 years and 3 months


5 feet 9 inches


138 pounds

Chest measurement (minimum):

35 inches

Chest measurement (expanded):

38 inches






Dark brown

Distinctive marks:

A scar on the third finger of the right hand; a scar on the left elbow; and a scar on the left knee


James Mc Intosh was recruited for service in the Royal Engineers in early August of 1898 by Sergeant J. Rogers of the 3rd (Militia) Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders. Mc Intosh swore the Oath of Attestation for a Short Service enlistment of 7 years with the Colours and 5 years in the Reserve [5]. The oath was made before John Young, Justice of the Peace, at Elgin on the 15th of August 1898.

At the time of his enlistment, Mc Intosh answered the customary questions put to the recruit. In addition to personal details of his life before enlisting, he indicated that he had never been sentenced to imprisonment by civil power, that he had no prior naval of military service, and that he had never been found unfit for military service.

A Certificate of Medical Examination was signed by a civil surgeon at Fort George, Scotland on the 16th of August 1891 indicating that James Mc Intosh was fit for service in the Army [6]. A Certificate of Primary Military Examination was signed on the same day at Ft. George by Captain R.R. Lauder, 72nd Regiment District Recruiting Officer, indicating that Mc Intosh was fit for service in the Royal Engineers [7]. His civil trade as a gasfitter would have been a plus for him being accepted into the Royal Engineers.

Mc Intosh’s attestation was determined to be correct on the 19th of August 1898 by Lieutenant Colonel James Maitland Hunt, Commanding Officer of the 2nd Battalion, Cameron Highlanders. Lieutenant Colonel Maitland issued the Certificate of Approving Officer at Fort George.

Following the formalities of his enlistment, Sapper James Mc Intosh, Regimental Number 2190, was assigned to the School of Military Engineering at Chatham, Kent, where he would undergo his recruit training as an engineer soldier [8].


a. Chatham, 1898-1899

Immediately following the completion of his training at Chatham, Sapper Mc Intosh was to the 7th Field Company, Royal Engineers. The company had returned from Bechuanaland only three years before. The 7th Field Company was known as the "Black Horse" Company, the origin of the name appearing to date from about 1885 when all the company horses were black [9]. Sapper Mc Intosh was assigned to No. 1 Section of the company under Lieutenant R.L. Mc Clintock, R.E.[10]. The company was stationed in Ireland at the time that Mc Intosh finished his training and joined the unit.

b. The Curragh, Ireland, 1899

The 7th Field Company had been posted to the Curragh in the County of Kildare, Ireland in the early part of 1896 and had been serving there while troubles were developing in South Africa. Mc Intosh hardly had time to guest accustomed to Curragh Camp when the 7th Field Company received orders to deploy to the Cape Colony.

c. South Africa, 1899-1902

On the 14th of July 1899 the 7th Field Company left the Curragh bound for Southampton. The company strength was 6 officers, 180 non-commissioned officers and men, and 30 horses [11]. The company was commanded by Brevet Lieutenant Colonel W.F.H.S. Kincaid [12]. The Second in Command was Captain F.R.F. Boileau [13]. The other officers in the company on deployment to South Africa were:

Lieutenant R.L. Mc Clintock, R.E.

Lieutenant E.E.B. Wilson, R.E.[14]

Lieutenant H. Musgrave, R.E.[15]

Lieutenant C.R. Johnson, R.E.[16]

Lieutenant C.C. Trench, R.E.[17]

The company embarked on board the Braemar Castle on the 15th of July 1899 bound for the Cape Colony where it would initially be assigned to serve with Corps Troops. The Braemar Castle arrived at Cape Town on the 5th of August and after disembarking the entire company was sent to Wynberg Camp where it was employed on the construction of accommodation for other British troops soon to arrive from England [18].

Sapper Mc Intosh, along with the rest of No. 1 Section under Lieutenant Mc Clintock, was sent to Kimberley on the 18th of September 1899. Mc Intosh’s first impression of Kimberley was that it was a bleak town constructed almost entirely of corrugated metal buildings. Kimberley was the second largest town in the Cape Colony at the time, with a population of 50,000 civilians. The town was surrounded by redoubts and forts [19]. The defensive perimeter around the town was initially 11 miles. By the time Mc Intosh and his mates left the place, the perimeter had been extended to 20 miles. The area of the defensive perimeter included the town of Kimberley and the adjoining villages of Beaconsfield and Kenilworth [20].

An officer of the Royal Engineers, Lieutenant D.S. Mc Innes,[21] was already in Kimberley planning and directing the defence of the town when No. 1 Section arrived. He had actually arrived prior to the outbreak of hostilities to supervise the construction of defences that had already been planned for the town [22].

The De Beers Chief Engineer, an American by the name of George Labram, was also in the town and was instrumental in assisting in the military engineering effort for its defence. Labram was 38 years old and a Mechanical Engineer by profession. Although not a British subject, Labram took an active part in the defence of the town and was responsible for the following projects [23]:

Labram was assisted in these tasks by the men of No. 1 Section, 7th Field Company, Royal Engineers and the men who worked on the mining equipment at the De Beers mine. The De Beers Chief Draughtsman, Edward Goffe, was also of much assistance, especially with the construction of the gun "Long Cecil."[24] The town of Kimberley had an extraordinary amount of skilled labour that could be turned to good use on military engineering projects in defence of the town.

The commander of British troops at Kimberley was Lieutenant Colonel R.G. Kekewich, 1st Battalion, the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment [25]. His command consisted of about 3,000 infantry and 850 horseman, mostly townspeople except for the 1st Battalion of the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment and a number of smaller British units. Another Sapper officer, Major W.A.J. O’Meara, R.E., was the defence force Intelligence Officer [26].

The Order of Battle of the forces defending the town of Kimberley are shown in the table below [27]:


Commanding Officer


Imperial Troops

1st Battalion, Loyal North Lancashire Regiment

Lieutenant Colonel
R.G. Kekewich

564 officers and men

23rd Company
Royal Garrison Artillery

Major G.D. Chamier

Six 7-pounder
Mountain guns

No. 1 Section, 7th Field Company, Royal Engineers

Lieutenant R.L. Mc Clintock

1 officer and
52 other ranks[28]

Army Service Corps

Captain Gorle

1 officer and 3 other ranks

Machine Gun Section


2 guns

Volunteer Force

Diamond Fields Artillery

One battery of six 7-pounder field guns

Diamond Fields Horse

7 officers and 142 other ranks

Kimberley (Light Horse) Regiment

14 officers and 285 other ranks

Cape Police

120 men

Maxim Battery

8 guns

Cecil Rhodes himself arrived in Kimberley on the 12th of October 1899 [29]. He arrived none too soon, as the Boers appeared before the town to begin the siege on the 15th of October [30]. It became apparent to all that the defences of the town would have to be considerably improved if they were to withstand bombardment, siege and possibly assault by the surrounding Boer force. The Royal Engineers in the town immediately began work to strengthen the defences. Their primary tasks were those listed below:

While the Royal Engineers and civilian engineers of the De Beers mine were busy strengthening the town’s defences, the British and Boers forces were busy planning their next moves. On the 24th of October 1899 the British force conducted a reconnaissance outside the town. On the 4th of November the Boer Commander, Commandant Wessels, offered to allow the woman and children of the Kimberley garrison to be sent out of the town with an offer of safe passage. His offer was refused. The Boers waited three more days, and on the 7th of November they began their bombardment of the town. Lieutenant Mc Clintock, Sapper Mc Intosh’s section commander, was the first officer of the garrison to be wounded, but only slightly. Mc Clintock would later receive the Distinguished Service Order for his service during the war, primarily for his work during the defence of Kimberley [37].

On the 15th of November, Mr. Labram set up a powerful searchlight looking right onto Otto’s Kopje. The purpose of this light was to give warning of any forward movement of the Boers. On the 23rd of November the searchlights began signalling every night in the hope of getting some response from the troops coming up to relieve the town.

The Boer bombardment of the town continued and the British, eager to get at the enemy made a sortie against a Boer redoubt on the 25th of November. These sorties usually did little damage to either side.

A balloon from Lieutenant General Lord Methuen’s column (British 1st Division) was sighted from the town on the 10th of December 1899. This was the first sign that a relief force was nearing Kimberley. This sighting gave the garrison hope, although the remainder of the month of December went by without further indications of the approach of the relief column. Early in January rations were reduced in the town to mule and horseflesh, each person receiving one-quarter pound per day. The health of Sapper Mc Intosh and the other men of No. 1 Section remained good despite the cut in rations. The men were energetic enough to engage in a tug-of-war on horseback as a means of diversion on the 17th of January between the Royal Engineers and the Royal Artillery.

On Christmas Night 1899, George Labram made a suggestion to Cecil Rhodes to construct a gun with a longer range than those in the garrison, and one that might reply more effectively to the heavy Boer artillery being used against the town. Rhodes gave his approval and work on the gun that was to be known as "Long Cecil" began on the following day. The Royal Engineers of Sapper Mc Intosh’s section assisted Mr. Labram with the construction of the gun. The gun and carriage were completed on the 18th of January 1900 and the gun was test fired the next day [38]. On the 21st of January the gun was handed over to the Diamond Fields Artillery and on the 23rd of January "Long Cecil" was fired in anger for the first time.

Early in February 1900 the Kimberley relief force was on the move and making steady progress towards the town. The column arrived at Fraser’s Drift on the 3rd and at Koodoosberg on the 4th. On the 6th of February a Boer force attacked the relief column, and on the same day the Boers began using an enormous gun against Kimberley. The gun was located at Kamfersdam and fired a 96-pound projectile.

The Boers withdrew from their attack on the relief column on the 8th of February and on the following day the British column pulled back to reorganize for the final advance on Kimberley. Unfortunately for the Kimberley garrison, the resourceful Mr. Labram was killed by a Boer artillery shell on the 9th of February 1900.

The British relief column completed it reorganization and refitting at Ramdam on the 11th of February and resumed its advance on Kimberley, reaching Waterval Drift on the 12th and the Modder River on the 13th.

On the 14th of February 1900 the march toward Kimberley was resumed with the Highland Brigade in the lead. The Highland Brigade, commanded by Hector Macdonald, consisted of a battalion each from the Black Watch, the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, the Seaforth Highlanders and the Highland Light Infantry. Supporting the infantry of the column were two squadrons of the 9th Lancers, 62nd Battery, Royal Artillery, and the remainder of the 7th Company, Royal Engineers whose mates were besieged in Kimberley.

Kimberley was relieved on the 15th of February 1900 and No. 1 Section of the 7th Field Company rejoined the remainder of the company. On the 20th of February a train arrived at Kimberley carrying a party of Royal Engineers on board to assist in the rebuilding and strengthening of the town and its fortifications.

The 7th Field Company moved to Bloemfontein on the 1st of March 1900 where it was employed on camp duties. On the 10th of March the company took part in the action at Driefontein. During this battle the Boers occupied a position about seven miles in extent, which was attacked in front by Lieutenant General Kelly-Kenny’s 6th division, and on the left flank by General Tucker’s division. The Boers were driven out and the road to Bloemfontein was opened, at a cost to the British of 424 killed and wounded. The Boers left over 100 dead on the field [39].

Captain T. Fraser, R.E. was assigned to the 7th Field Company in March of 1900 as Second in Command [40]. The company remained in camp at Bloemfontein until the 25th of April 1900 when it began the march to Pretoria with the Highland Brigade of the 9th Infantry Division. The company marched with General Ian Hamilton’s force on the east side of the Bloemfontein to Vereenigen railway line and reached Winburg on the 6th of May where it was employed on the construction of the defences of the town [41]. It then continued on towards Pretoria, reaching Lindley on the 17th of May and the Rhenoster River on the 20th. On the 29th of May the 7th Field Company supported the attack on the Boer position at Doornkop.

Sapper Mc Intosh and his company entered Pretoria on the 5th of June 1900. After a few days there the company was moved to Leeuwspruit, reaching that town on the 14th of June. On the 26th of June Lieutenant Mc Clintock, who had been Mc Intosh’s section commander since the start of the war, and had been with them all through the siege at Kimberley, was reassigned to staff duties. On the following day, Captain Boileau was also assigned to staff duties.

Parts of the 7th Field Company left Leeuwspruit on the 1st of July 1900 to accompany the British forces chasing the Boers around the surrounding countryside. Sapper Mc Intosh and the other men of No. 1 Section were left behind. No. 1 Section was engaged in operations at Wittebergen and was employed on blockhouse construction duties and the construction of other defensive works on the Line of Communication. No. 1 Section worked in the area from Harrismith to Bethlehem to Senekal and Clocolan, along the Basuto border and back to Harrismith [42]. It appears, however, that Sapper Mc Intosh was not with his section during the operations at Wittebergen, since he did not receive a clasp for this campaign on his Queen’s South Africa Medal. He may have been on detached service with another section or with company headquarters in the Transvaal.

On the 7th of July 1900 the British captured the town of Bethlehem. The Boers retired to the Brandwater Basin between Wittebergen and Roodebergen Hills and the Caledon River. Parts of the 7th Field Company assisted in operations against the Boers in this region and occupied the mountain passes [43].

Operations in the Wittebergen area formally ended on the 29th of July 1900 and the company moved to a location near Frederikstad on the 30th. Lieutenant Colonel Kincaid was assigned to staff duties on the 24th of August 1900. Lieutenant Musgrave assumed acting command of the company. Musgrave relinquished command of the company to Major E.D. Haggitt, R.E. in October of 1900 [44]. On the 28th of November 1900, Captain Fraser left the company to attend the Staff College.

While the officers were being reassigned and leaving the 7th Field Company, the non-commissioned officers and men worked on to combat the Boers who continued to fight a guerrilla-type war. Lieutenant Musgrave had remained with the company after turning command over to Major Haggitt. In June of 1901 it became Musgrave’s turn to leave when he was assigned to duties as the Assistant Director of Works in South Africa [45].

Sapper Mc Intosh spent another year in South Africa working on blockhouses to protect against Boer raids on British installations. In July of 1901 he was authorized the Queen’s South Africa Medal with clasps [DEFENCE OF KIMBERLEY] [DRIEFONTEIN] [TRANSVAAL]. The 7th Field Company was at Bloemfontein when the medal roll was prepared on the 9th of July 1901 [46].

Early in 1902 Captain R.H. Macdonald, R.E. was assigned to the company as Second in Command [47]. In April of 1902, Lieutenant Trench died in South Africa of disease [48].

d. Home Service, 1902-1906

Sapper Mc Intosh and the remainder of the 7th Field Company disembarked in England on the 28th of September 1902 after the trip home from South Africa. He proceeded with the rest of the men of the company to Aldershot where they were to be stationed. Only 3 officers and 45 other ranks of the original company returned to Aldershot. One officer (Lieutenant Trench) and 12 non-commissioned officers and men had died in South Africa, the remainder being transferred or invalided.

On the 2nd of November 1902 the medal roll for the King’s South Africa Medal was prepared for the 7th Field Company at Aldershot. Mc Intosh was authorized this medal with clasps [SOUTH AFRICA 1901][SOUTH AFRICA 1902] for his service during the war [49].

On the 31st of March 1904, Sapper Mc Intosh extended his service to complete 8 years with the Colours [50], and on the 1st of April 1904 he elected to draw service pay under authority of Army Order 66-1902. He was granted service pay Class I.

The 7th Field Company was serving at Shorncliffe in Kent in 1906 when on the 6th of July of that year Sapper Mc Intosh extended his service again, this time to complete 12 years with the Colours. He was subsequently transferred to the 54th Field Company, which at that time was serving in the Cape Colony in South Africa.

e. South Africa, 1906-1910

Mc Intosh embarked for South Africa on the 30th of August 1906 to join his new unit. Sapper Mc Intosh served with the 54th Field Company in the Bloemfontein Sub-District of Orange River Colony District in South Africa for about three and a half years. On the 1st of November 1907 his service pay was reduced from Class I to Class II by authority of Army Order 231 of 1906. On the 12th of March 1910 he was alerted for posting back to England and his records were transferred to "G" Company of the Royal Engineers Depot Battalion in Chatham.

f. Home Service, 1910

Mc Intosh embarked for England on the 6th of April 1910 and reported to "G" Company upon his arrival. He applied for discharge from the service at that time.


a. Promotions: Sapper Mc Intosh received no promotions during his 12 years of service with the Colours.

b. Conduct: Sapper Mc Intosh received the following Good Conduct Badges during his time in service:

Date of Award

Good Conduct Badge

15 August 1900

Awarded Good Conduct Pay at the rate of 1.d per day

1 April 1904

Awarded Good Conduct Pay at the rate of 2.d per day

c. Education: There is no record of any Certificates of Education having been earned by Sapper Mc Intosh during his period of service.


Except for the results of his medical examination and description on enlistment, Sapper Mc Intosh’s service records do not contain a Medical History Sheet.


Throughout his period of military service, Sapper Mc Intosh’s father was listed as his next of kin. He does not appear to have married nor had any children during his time in the Army.


James Mc Intosh was discharged from the Army at Chatham, Kent on the 14th of August 1910 on the termination of his first period of limited engagement. His total service was reckoned as shown in the tables below:


Period of Service


334 days

South Africa

3 years and 76 days


3 years and 335 days

South Africa

3 years and 219 days


131 days


Period of Service

Home Service

5 years and 70 days

Service Abroad

6 years and 295 days

Total Service

12 years exactly


Nothing is known about James Mc Intosh’s life after leaving the Army in 1910. His discharge took place only four years before the start of the Great War of 1914 to 1918. It is possible that Mc Intosh was called up for service in that war [51].


[1] Unless otherwise noted, the information contained in this narrative has been taken from the service papers of James Mc Intosh, WO97/5416, Public Record Office, Kew, Richmond, Surrey.

[2] This county of Scotland is now known as Grampian.

[3] The surname is spelled Mackintosh in the 1881 British Census. Mormon Church Family History Library Film 0203431, GRO Reference Volume 125, Enumeration District 2, Page 6.

[4] 1881 British Census. Mormon Church Family History Library Film 0203431, GRO Reference Volume 125, Enumeration District 2, Page 6.

[5] See Periods of Enlistment for The Corps of Royal Engineers.

[6] See Age and Physical Requirements for Soldiers in the British Army (Victorian Period).

[7] Fort George was the regimental headquarter of the Seaforth Highlanders and Regimental District No. 72.

[8] See Engineer Recruit Training.

[9] BAKER, H.A.

[10] Lieutenant Robert Lyle Mc Clintock, R.E.

[11] BAKER, H.A.

[12] Lieutenant Colonel William Francis Henry Style Kincaid, R.E.

[13] Captain Frank Ridley Farrer Boileau, R.E.

[14] Lieutenant Eric Edward Boketon Wilson, R.E.

[15] Lieutenant Herbert Musgrave, R.E.

[16] Lieutenant Charles Reginald Johnson, R.E.

[17] Lieutenant Christopher Chenevix Trench, R.E.

[18] BAKER, H.A.


[20] SIBBALD, R.

[21] Lieutenant Duncan Sayre Mc Innes, R.E.


[23] FARWELL, B.

[24] PEDDLE, D.E.

[25] Later Major General Robert George Kekewich (1854-1914).


[27] DOYLE, A.C.

[28] Includes 2 other ranks from the 6th Company, Royal Engineers.

[29] DOYLE, A.C. Other sources give Rhode’s date of arrival as the 10th of October 1899.

[30] BAKER, H.A..

[31] Kimberlite is a mineral consisting of mica-peridotite, an eruptive rock, and the matrix of the diamonds found at Kimberley and elsewhere in South Africa. Kimberlite was also referred to as a "diamondiferous ore," that is, a material yielding diamonds.


[33] SIBBALD, R.

[34] There is evidence to indicate that the Boer’s intention was just to keep the British force bottled up in the town. They did not appear interested in losing many men in a general assault on the fortifications.

[35] SIBBALD, R.


[37] BAKER, H.A.

[38] PEDDLE, D.E.


[40] Captain Theodore Fraser, R.E.

[41] WATSON, C.M.

[42] BAKER, H.A.

[43] Ibid.

[44] Major Edward Dashwood Haggitt, R.E.

[45] BAKER, H.A.

[46] Medal Roll WO100/155/60.

[47] Captain Ranald Hume Macdonald, R.E.

[48] BAKER, H.A.

[49] WO100/313/39.

[50] See Extensions of Service of the Regular Army.

[51] A Territorial Force Efficiency Medal (GV) to a 2130 Sergeant J. Mc Intosh is known to exist, re: Jeffrey Hoare Auctions, No. 18, 22 April 1995. It is quite possible that the "3" on the TFEM is actually a "9" and that this J. Mc Intosh is 2190 Sergeant James Mc Intosh, Royal Engineers.



1. BAKER, H.A. History of the 7th Field Company, R.E. During the War, 1914-1918, With a Short Record of the Movements and Campaigns since the Formation of the Company. The Royal Engineers Journal. The Institution of Royal Engineers, Chatham, Kent, March 1932.

2. CONOLLY, T.W.J. Roll of Officers of the Corps of Royal Engineers From 1660 to 1898. The Royal Engineers Institute, Chatham, Kent, 1898.

3. CRESWICKE, L. South Africa and the Transvaal War. Volume II. The Caxton Publishing Co., London, 19__.

4. DOYLE, A.C. The Great Boer War. Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., London, Edinburgh and New York, 1903.

5. FARWELL, B. The Great Anglo-Boer War. Harper & Row, New York, 1976.

6. FARWELL, B. Mr. Kipling’s Army: All the Queen’s Men. W.W. Norton & Company, New York, 1981.

7. GORDON, L.L. British Battles and Medals. Spink & Son, Ltd., London, 1971.

8. GRIERSON, J.M. Scarlet Into Khaki: The British Army on the Eve of the Boer War. Greenhill Books, London, 1988.

9. HARBOTTLE, T. Dictionary of Battles. Stein and Day, New York, 1971.

10. HARDING, W. War in South Africa and the Dark Continent. The Dominion Company, Chicago, 1899.

11. KRUGER, R. Good-bye Dolly Gray. J.P. Lippincott Company, New York, 1960.

12. PACKENHAM, T. The Boer War. Random House, New York, 1979.

13. SIBBALD, R. The War Correspondents: The Boer War. Bramley Books, Stroud, 1993.

14. SKELLEY, A.R. The Victorian Army at Home: The Recruitment and Terms and Conditions of the British Army, 1859-1899. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal, 1977.

15. WATSON, C.M. The History of the Corps of Royal Engineers. Volume III. The Institution of Royal Engineers, Chatham, Kent, 1954.


  1. Soldier’s Service Papers, Public Record Office, Kew, Richmond, Surrey. Papers include the following documents:
  1. Short Service Attestation, Army Form B. 265.
  2. Description on Enlistment.
  3. Statement of Services.
  4. Military History Sheet.

2. Queen’s South Africa Medal Roll, 7th Field Company Royal Engineers, WO100/155/60.

3. Kimberley Star Medal Roll, Army Order 94 of 1904.

Internet Sources

1. Expediamaps.com, 2000.

2. INTERNExT Kimberley, 1997

3. Jones, M. Blockhouses of the Boer War. Colonial Conquest, Partzan Press, 1996.


1. HEBERDEN, W. The Diary of a Doctor’s Wife During the Siege of Kimberley, October 1899 to February 1900. Military History Journal. Volume 3, Numbers 4, 5 and 6. The South African Military History Society, 2000.

2. JOHNSON, J. & BRIDGEMAN, M. An Unusual Anglo-Boer War Blockhouse in the Remote Koue Bokkeveld District. Military History Journal. Volume 9, Number 1. The South African Military History Society, 2000.

3. PEDDLE, D.E. LONG CECIL: The Gun Made in Kimberley during the Siege. Military History Journal. Volume 4, Number 1. The South African Military History Society, 2000.

4. TOMLINSON, R. Britain’s Last Castles: Masonry Blockhouses of the South African War, 1899-1902. Military History Journal. Volume 10, Number 6. The South African Military History Society, 2000.